- Timeline of Operating System.

The Past, Present & expected Future - 


* Based on I/O System & Devices 

The timeline of Operating System, this story starts from "LEO 1" in 1951 to today's (March 2013) "Linux 3.0". And the story will be continued for a infinity time we hope. A lot of change we've seen in Input Output system of OS, & the in devices and we'll see this in the future also. Technology is upgrading within a blink of eyes this days.

I'll be focus on Input Output or shortly I/O system of OS and the devices. Lets know something about I/O & how does it really works with OS.

I/O is the communication between an information processing system (such as a computer) and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. 

Computers are based on the fundamental idea that every input results in an output. For example, if you are running a word processor program and type a sentence on your keyboard, the text will appear on the screen. The keyboard is an input device and the screen is an output device. You might also print the text using a printer, which is another output device. The computer's CPU handles all the I/O operations, sending the data it receives to the correct path. The path may be to the video card, to the hard drive, or to the RAM, just to name a few.

The ports on the outside of a computer are commonly referred to as "I/O ports" because they are what connect input and output devices to the computer. Software developers use I/O to describe how a program will function, depending on what a user enters. For example, if the user presses the space bar key in a game, say "Super Jumper Man," the character on the screen will jump. Multiply that by several thousand other scenarios of user input and you have yourself a computer game.


Here is some basic Input & Output devices related to computer.

Input Devices:

1. Graphics Tablet

2. Camera
3. Video Capture Hardware
4. Trackballs
5. Bar-code reader
6. Digital camera
7. Game Pad
8. Joystick
9. Keyboard
10. Microphone
11. MIDI keyboard
12. Mouse (pointing device)
13. Scanner
14. Webcam
15. Touch Pad
16. Pen Input
17. Microphone
18. Electronic Whiteboard

 Output Devices:

1. Monitor

2. Printers (all types)
3. Plotters
4. Projector
5. LCD Projection Panels
6. Computer Output Microfilm (COM)
7. Speaker(s)


Both Input & Output Devices:

1. Modems

2. Network Card / Audio Cards / Sound Card
3. Touch Screen
4. Headsets (Speaker act as Output Device and Microphone act as Input device)
5. FAX (Scanner act as Input device and Printer act as Output Device)


We used these before till now & using now also, but theirs technology is changing & upgrading. We use Monitor as output device. We'd used CRT monitor before. How we are using LED-backlit LCD display. 

The next generation display technologies - Organic light-emitting diode (OLED), Organic light-emitting transistor (OLET), Surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED), Field emission display (FED), Laser TV(Quantum dot, Liquid crystal), Quantum dot display (QD-LED), Thick-film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL), Laser phosphor display (LPD).

Its my limitation, to talk about all the I/O devices. I'll be talking about Display's (as a output device) evaluation with time. 


 display is very popular with today's wrist watch & calculator. But previously it was used as a computer display. The display consists of a dot matrix of lights or mechanical indicators arranged in a rectangular configuration (other shapes are also possible, although not common) such that by switching on or off selected lights, text or graphics can be displayed. A dot matrix controller converts instructions from a processor into signals which turns on or off lights in the matrix so that the required display is produced.


The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source of electrons or electron emitter) and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam(s) onto the fluorescent screen to create the images. The image may represent electrical waveforms (oscilloscope), pictures (television, computer monitor), radar targets and others.

In a cathode ray tube, the cathode is a heated filament. The heated filament is in a vacuum created inside a glass tube. The ray is a stream of electrons generated by an electron gun that naturally pour off a heated cathode into the vacuum. Electrons are negative. The anode is positive, so it attracts the electrons pouring off the cathode. This screen is coated with phosphor, an organic material that glows when struck by the electron beam.

There are three ways to filter the electron beam in order to obtain the correct image on the monitor screen: shadow mask, aperture grill and slot mask. These technologies also impact the sharpness of the monitor's display. Let's take a closer look at these now.

 

Lquid Crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly. 

1. Polarizing filter film with a vertical axis to polarize light as it enters.

2. Glass substrate with ITO electrodes. The shapes of these electrodes will determine the shapes that will appear when the LCD is turned ON. Vertical ridges etched on the surface are smooth.

3. Twisted nematic liquid crystal.

4. Glass substrate with common electrode film (ITO) with horizontal ridges to line up with the horizontal filter.

5. Polarizing filter film with a horizontal axis to block/pass light.

6. Reflective surface to send light back to viewer. (In a backlit LCD, this layer is replaced with a light source.)

LED-backlit LCD display is a flat panel display which uses LED backlighting instead of the cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL) backlighting used by most other LCDs.[1] LED-backlit LCD TVs use the same TFT LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display) technologies as CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Picture quality is primarily based on TFT LCD technology, independent of backlight type.

 


                Laser Phosphor Display, or LPD, is the display technology and large format display platform invented by Prysm. It is the core of all Prysm Digital Display Solutions, and to many, it represents the next generation of large format digital displays. LPD consists of 3 main parts: the Laser Engine, the Laser Processor, and the Phosphor Panel (described below). 

LPD uses a patented laser engine and a phosphor panel to create stunning, lifesize images with low-power, solid-state lasers. Fundamentally different than LED- and LCD-based technologies, LPD solutions—packaged configurations containing LPD technology and other components—are designed to a human scale and offer brilliant image quality, unmatched viewing angles, and the industry’s smallest environmental footprint. Compared to other digital technologies, Prysm’s LPD technology has the lowest total cost of ownership and offers highly-competitive features, benefits and usage possibilities.


In very near future we’ll see third dimension display that aims to reinforce human creativity, by joining a simple two-dimensional world with high realism of virtual holographic projection consists of a monitor, a stylus and special 3D glasses. You can witness a next stage of the three-dimensional modeling development with display.


Would like to thank - wikipedia.org || microsoft.com || computerhistory.org || prysm.com || howstuffworks.com || futuristicnews.com || techterms.com || 

 Review Section:

Name

Sinthia Hamid

University ID No.

103014022

On the same topic, my Blog URL

sinthiame.blogspot.com

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 Good :)

Comment

Hi,Fahad your blog is nice.Why didn't you use drawing freehand.

Author's replay: I'd a plan to do that. But seriously I didn't find anything that cloud be draw freehand to make better.

Thanks. :)

Name

Tasnuva Sinthia Nowrin

University ID No.

093014008

On the same topic, my Blog URL

nowrin-sinthi-cse.blogspot.com

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Hi Fahad.your blog is godd. you say 3D dimentional will in future but it is include in present, already. but the future operating system will be like Quantum based. that opareting support that softwares whose have a sensore that can creat or distroy any program of another computer.for example there are two computers in diffrent places but there have no connection butthe have a cannection that is sensor.......if we instal any program or distroy any software than another will be also same think.............. thank you

Author's replay: I'm sorry there is too many spelling & grammatical mistakes. Can't read you.

Explaining the 3D part, 3D display exists already. But not like this. If you see a 3D TV and my future concept together, you can easily find out the difference. The 3D display that already exists there you can see the picture on the screen, in future you'll see that out of the screen, in the air!

Thank you. :)

- You are gladly invited to write a review -

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Name

Dewan Ahmed Shuvro

University ID No.

111014004

On the same topic, my Blog URL

shuvroonline.wordpress.com

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Comment

Hello, Good work. Only thing can be asked is, what was your limitations regarding discussing about the other or one/two more I/O devices?! You could have done a lot better. Nice job done anyway & keep this up :)

Author's replay: Thank you. I'm confessing my limitations with time & patience! I'd do, but I thought It'll be better to cover the whole thing (including the Past, Present & the Future) as I promised in the beginning of the paper. So I thought lets take a single I/O device first & explain about it from all the sides.

Thanks again. :)


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